Diamond / CBN Tools
General Information
Diamond and CBN product range
PFERD offers a high-quality, efficient and
In addition to this wide range of standard
These tools cut extremely well and have both a
immediately available range of systems for
grinding tools, PFERD also specialises in the
longer tool life as well as a better dimensional
surface finishing work - coarse to mirror
customer-specific manufacture of electro-
stability than standard grinding tools.
polishing, right up to material cutting.
plated-, resinoid-, ceramic and metal-bonded
diamond and CBN tools.
Superhard abrasives
Comparison: hardness of abrasives
The term “superhard abrasives” refers to
1. Diamond
2. CBN Cubic Boron Nitride
70.000
(cubic crystal boron nitride)
These abrasives are termed “superhard”
because they are significantly harder than
60.000
conventional abrasives, e.g., aluminium oxide
and silicon carbine (see graph).
Diamond occurs in nature but, like CBN, can
also be produced synthetically.
50.000
At extremely high pressures and temperatures,
pure carbon (C) synthesizes to diamond,
whereas the chemical elements born (B) and
40.000
nitrogen (N) synthesize to cubic crystalline
boron nitride. Different cutting properties can
be imparted to these abrasives by varying the
process parameters during synthesis.
30.000
As the graph shows, CBN is nearly as hard as
diamond.
20.000
Processes
Precision grinding
Precision cutting
Deep grinding
10.000
Round grinding
Profile grinding
Coordinate grinding
Inner grinding
0
Deburring
The use of diamond and CBN according to application
Industries
Tool and
Machine/
Aerospace
Ceramic
Foundries
Automotive
Tool industry
mould
plant con-
industry
industry
industry
making
struction
Materials
Synthetic carbons, graphite,
-
D
-
-
-
-
-
GRP/CRP, epoxy resins
D
D
D
-
-
D
-
Cast-, grey cast-, nodular iron
-
-
-
-
D/B
-
-
Carbides green and sintered
D
-
-
-
-
-
D
Ceramic, oxide ceramic, cermets,
-
D
-
D
-
D
D
silicon carbide
Magnetic materials, ferrite
-
D
-
-
-
D
-
(soft and hard ferrite)
Friction pads, brake pads
-
-
-
-
-
D
-
Tungsten carbide, nickel-based
D
D
D
-
-
-
-
alloys
Tungsten electrodes
-
D
-
-
-
-
-
Chrome steel, ball bearing steel
-
B
-
-
-
B
-
Case-hardened steel
B
B
-
-
-
B
-
High-performance high-speed
B
-
-
-
-
-
B
steel (HSS), tool steel
D = Diamond
B = CBN
205 I
3
Diamond / CBN Tools
General Information
Advantages of grinding tools with diamond and CBN
Superb tool life and dimensional stability.
Avoids thermal damage to the workpiece as
Short processing times.
low resulting grinding temperatures.
Reduction of less unproductive work time
Consistent quality for various types of
as the tool does not need to be dressed or
workpieces.
changed so often.
Economical comparison of
diamond and CBN against
aluminium oxide
Diamond and CBN tools are characterised by
longer tool life,
improved abrasive qualities and
longer-lasting profile-holding properties
in comparison to similar tools that use normal
or zirconia aluminia.
The dust exposure is substantially
reduced. This makes the product user-friendly.
The information in the adjacent diagram is
valid when the optimal conditions and the
required parameters are maintained.
Tool life
Grinding
Profile stability
Dust load
ease
Diamond abrasives
Main uses for diamond
Diamond tools
are suitable for working on
Diamond and CBN abrasives do not compete,
Carbides (sintered)
but complement each other.
Carbides (green compacts)
Glass
Diamond is not suitable for machining steel,
because a chemical reaction between the iron
Ceramics (including engineering ceramics)
Porcelain
(Fe) in the steel and the carbon (C) in the dia-
mond would cause exceedingly fast tool wear.
Wear-resistant coatings
Using diamond abrasives on steel will therefore
Ferrite
not be cost-effective.
Silicon
Graphite, synthetic carbon
Thermoset plastics
Glass-fibre reinforced plastics
Natural and synthetic stone
Refractory materials
CBN abrasives
Main uses for CBN
CBN tools
are suitable for working on
CBN is only slightly less harder than diamond
High-speed steels
but does not react to the iron (Fe) contained
Tool steels
in steel.
Case-hardened steels
Ball-bearing steels
Chromium steels
Hardened steel materials with a hardness
grade of over 54 HRC
Suitable drives for diamond and CBN tools
Tool Drives
209
One prerequisite for the economical use of
The following drives are suitable:
diamond and CBN tools is the selection of the
Stationary machines,
appropriate tool drive. Not only the machines
air grinders,
power but also the optimum RPM is ex-
air filing machines and
tremely important. Please refer to the tables on
electric angle grinders.
For detailed information
pages 7 and 8 for guidelines on cutting speeds
and ordering data on
and RPM.
tool drives please refer to
catalogue 209.
4
I
205
Diamond / CBN Tools
Bond Types
Electroplated bond
Resinoid bond
Ceramic bond
Ceramic bond
Electroplated bond
Resinoid bond
Pores
Metal
substrate
Abrasive structure
Abrasive structure
Abrasive structure
Electroplated diamond and CBN tools have
The abrasive coating of a resinoid-bonded
The grinding layer of ceramic-bond CBN-
a monolayer of abrasive coating on a metal
diamond or CBN grinding wheel is com-
tools comprises
substrate which is bonded through a nickel
posed of
grit,
layer. This creates a very open tool surface
grit,
bond and
with large chip spaces.
bond and
pores.
filling material.
An important sign of the ceramic bond is
The bond is compacted so densely so that it
the coating structure.
contain no pores (see sketch).
Advantages
Advantages
Advantages
Very easy to cut due to the coating type.
Very high coarse stock removal rate due
The pore spaces in a ceramic facilitate
Virtually any substrate geometry can be
to the low bond hardness.
chip transport and coolant flows during
coated.
Short grinding times.
grinding.
Due to their monolayer structure
Little heat generated,
Can be dressed without then having to
comparatively low in cost.
i.e. “cool grinding”.
sharpen (open) the tools.
The bond structure can be adapted very
sensitively and accurately to the require-
ments of the grinding process.
Fields of applications
Fields of applications
Fields of applications
The properties of electroplated tools can be
Resin bonded diamond and CBN abrasive
Ceramic bond CBN grinding tools are highly
varied over a wide range by selecting the
tools have met with a particularly rapid
effective for internal grinding operations
appropriate grit size. Coarse grit tools have
acceptance in tool grinding applications
on steel (large contact areas). They are also
proven particularly suitable for soft materi-
(dry and wet grinding). The cutting materi-
exceptionally well suited for a larger number
als such as glass-fibre reinforced plastics,
als machined in this industry, i.e. carbides
of other production grinding processes.
whereas harder materials require a much
(ground with diamond) and high-speed or
finer grit. The electroplated nickel layer is
tool steel (ground with CBN), call for the
extremely hard and wear-resistant.
use of extremely wear-resistant abrasive grit
which generates very little heat.
Grit concentration: C 38 - C 125
Grit concentration: C 75 - C 200
Grit size recommendation: D/B 15 - D/B 252
Grit size recommendation: B 46 - B 252
Dry and wet grinding
Dry and wet grinding
Wet grinding
Electroplated-bond tools can be used for
Depending on the type of resinoid bond,
Ceramic-bonded tools are always used wet.
both dry and wet grinding regardless of
these tools can be used for either wet or dry
The use of an oil coolant will greatly prolong
their design.
grinding. Tools for wet grinding can not be
the tool life.
used for dry grinding!
Technologically, wet grinding is superior to
dry grinding in terms of both tool life and
stock removal rates.
205 I
5
Diamond / CBN Tools
Grit Size Comparison
Grit size comparison:
Grit sizes
Grit designation [µm]
Equivalent US merk
Micro-grit sizes
ISO 6106 (FEPA Standard)
number/Inch
US mesh size
acc. to ISO 6106 and
Diamond
CBN
acc. to US mesh size
D 15
-
-
Definition of grit size
Micro-grit
D 25
-
-
The size of the abrasive particles used for
D 46
B
46
325/400
diamond and CBN tools is usually stated ac-
very fine
cording to the FEPA standard (FEPA = Fédéra-
D 54
B
54
270/325
tion Européenne des Fabricants de Produits
D 64
B
64
230/270
Abrasifs).
D 76
B
76
200/230
Grit size is measured in terms of the nominal
D 91
B
91
170/200
mesh size of specific screens and denotes the
approximate grain diameter in µm, i.e., a high
D 107
B 107
140/170
number indicates a coarse grit while a small
D 126
B 126
120/140
number refers to a fine grit size.
D 151
B 151
100/120
D 181
B 181
80/100
D 213
B 213
70/ 80
D 251
-
60/ 70
B 252
60/ 80
D 301
B 301
50/ 60
D 357
B 357
45/ 50
D 427
B 427
40/ 50
D 502
B 502
35/ 45
D 602
B 602
30/ 40
very coarse
D 852
B 852
20/ 30
Grit concentration
Carat weight per cm³
Grit volume in %
Concentration code
abrasive volume [ct/cm³]
of abrasive volume
The grit concentration refers to the number
of abrasive particles per unit volume of the
C 25
1,1
6,25
coating.
C 38
1,65
9,50
It is normally expressed on a scale from C 25
to C 200 (see table).
C 50
2,2
12,50
C 75
3,3
18,75
Diamond and CBN grain weights are conven-
tionally measured in carats (ct). Thus, a C 25
C 100
4,4
25,00
concentration means a carat weight of 1,1 ct
C 125
5,5
31,25
per cm³ of coating volume.
C 150
6,6
37,50
A high concentration of abrasive particles
C 175
7,7
43,75
makes the tool more wear-resistant, which is
C 200
8,8
50,00
particularly desirable for profile grinding opera-
tions or in applications involving very small
diameters.
Low concentration, e.g. C 25
High concentration, e.g. C 200
In most cases, the tool life depends on the grit
concentration, i.e., the higher the grit concen-
tration the longer the tool life. This more than
outweighs the extra tool costs (due to greater
diamond or CBN grit volumes).
Potential drawbacks of higher grit concentra-
tions lie in the need for higher grinding forces
and higher process temperatures. Hence, a
higher grit concentration need not necessarily
be the best solution in terms of economic and
technological efficiency.
6
I
205
Diamond / CBN Tools
Cutting Speeds and Recommendations for Use
Recommended cutting speeds
The wide range of tasks and applications
PFERD offers individual advice on
makes it very difficult to define generally ap-
questions referring to processing with
The recommended cutting speed ranges are
plicable technical parameters for electroplated-
diamond and CBN tools. Our experienced
dependent on each application and always lie
bond tools. The rates given below should be
technical advisors are always happy to
below the maximum cutting speed of the tool.
considered as a guideline only.
help. You can find our global sales ad-
The recommended RPM gives optimum cost/
dresses at www.pferd.com
benefit.
The recommended cutting speeds serve
only as guideline values.
Recommended cutting speed [m/s] for diamond and CBN tools
Bond type
Application
8
12
15
18
20
25
30
40
50
80
Electroplated
FVK (GRP + CRP)
Dry grinding
bond tools
Wet grinding
Dry grinding
Wet grinding
Resinoid
Dry grinding
bond tools
Wet grinding
Dry grinding
Wet grinding
Ceramic
bond tools
Wet grinding
Recommendations for use
Diamond tools should generally not be used at
If diamond tools are used in wet grinding, the
high speeds when dry grinding, as diamonds
pressure and amount of coolant must be ad-
are heat sensitive.
justed to match any increase in cutting speed.
The specified operating values listed above re-
An exception to this rule are materials which
If the cooling proves insufficient, the tool and/
sult from the physical qualities of the hard ma-
do not generate such high process heat when
or the workpiece may be destroyed.
terials and their respective bonds. If possible,
being worked on, and/or the generated heat
wet grinding should be carried out in prefer-
CBN can generally be used at higher cutting
is carried out of the grinding zone in the chips
ence to dry grinding. A bond system produced
speeds than diamond as it has a superior
due to the high stock removal rate (e.g. FRP
for wet grinding has a longer productivity and
temperature stability.
materials). It is often not possible to use very
tool life if it is not used for dry grinding.
small mounted points with the recommended
In order to benefit most from the advantages
Please select as large a tool diameter as pos-
minimum RPM. Diamond tools can always be
of the CBN cutting material, the tools should
sible, as the number of cutting grit increases-
used below the limits given. Please observe
not be used below the cutting speeds listed
with a larger tool circumference; more cutting
however that other operating parameters
above.
edges are utilised.
such as feed rate and infeed must be adapted
accordingly.
205 I
7
Diamond / CBN Tools
Cutting Speeds and Safety Recommendations
Conversion table
Example:
Diamond grinding point
from
Diameter: 20 mm,
cutting speed [m/s]
Cutting speed: 25 m/s
in rotational speed [RPM]
Rotational speed: 23.870 RPM
per tool diameter
Cutting speed [m/s]
8
12
15
18
20
25
30
40
50
80
100
125
Tool dia.
Rotational speed [RPM]
[mm]
1
152.790
229.180
2
76.390
114.590
143.240
171.890
190.990
238.730
3
50.930
76.390
95.490
114.590
127.320
159.160
190.990
4
38.200
57.300
71.620
85.940
95.490
119.370
143.240
190.990
5
30.560
45.840
57.300
68.760
76.390
95.490
114.590
152.790
190.990
6
25.470
38.200
47.750
57.300
63.660
79.580
95.490
127.320
159.160
7
21.830
32.740
40.930
49.110
54.570
68.210
81.850
109.140
136.420
218.270
8
19.100
28.650
35.810
42.970
47.750
59.680
71.620
95.490
119.370
190.990
238.730
9
16.980
25.470
31.830
38.200
42.440
53.050
63.660
84.880
106.100
169.770
212.210
10
15.280
22.920
28.650
34.380
38.200
47.750
57.300
76.390
95.490
152.790
190.990
238.730
12
12.730
19.100
23.870
28.650
31.830
39.790
47.750
63.660
79.580
127.320
159.160
198.940
15
10.190
15.280
19.100
22.920
25.470
31.830
38.200
50.930
63.660
101.860
127.320
159.160
18
8.490
12.730
15.920
19.100
21.220
26.530
31.830
42.440
53.050
84.880
106.100
132.630
20
7.640
11.460
14.320
17.190
19.100
23.870
28.650
38.200
47.750
76.390
95.490
119.370
25
6.110
9.170
11.460
13.750
15.280
19.100
22.920
30.560
38.200
61.120
76.400
95.490
30
5.090
7.640
9.550
11.460
12.730
15.920
19.100
25.470
31.830
50.930
63.660
79.580
40
3.820
5.730
7.160
8.590
9.550
11.940
14.320
19.100
23.870
38.200
47.750
59.680
50
3.060
4.580
5.730
6.880
7.640
9.550
11.460
15.280
19.100
30.560
38.200
47.750
75
2.040
3.060
3.820
4.580
5.090
6.370
7.640
10.190
12.730
20.370
25.470
31.830
100
1.530
2.290
2.870
3.440
3.820
4.780
5.730
7.640
9.550
15.280
19.100
23.870
125
1.220
1.830
2.290
2.750
3.060
3.820
4.580
6.110
7.640
12.220
15.280
19.100
150
1.020
1.530
1.910
2.290
2.550
3.180
3.820
5.090
6.370
10.190
12.730
15.920
175
870
1.310
1.640
1.960
2.180
2.730
3.270
4.370
5.460
8.730
10.910
13.640
200
760
1.150
1.430
1.720
1.910
2.390
2.870
3.820
4.780
7.640
9.550
11.940
250
610
920
1.150
1.380
1.530
1.910
2.290
3.060
3.820
6.110
7.640
9.550
300
510
760
960
1.150
1.280
1.600
1.910
2.550
3.180
5.090
6.370
7.960
350
440
660
820
980
1.090
1.360
1.640
2.180
2.730
4.370
5.460
6.820
400
380
570
720
860
960
1.200
1.430
1.910
2.390
3.820
4.780
5.970
450
340
510
640
760
850
1.060
1.270
1.700
2.120
3.400
4.240
5.310
500
310
460
570
690
760
960
1.150
1.530
1.910
3.060
3.820
4.780
600
260
380
480
570
640
800
960
1.270
1.590
2.550
3.180
3.980
Safety note
Safety recommendations:
PFERD diamond and CBN grinding tools
comply with the highest quality and safety re-
= Wear eye protection!
quirements and are manufactured and labelled
according to the European safety standard
EN 13236.
= Wear hearing protection!
PFERD manufactures all its tools in accord-
ance with the specified safety regulations. The
oparator is responsible for the grinding applica-
= Read the instructions!
tion; correct tool drive use, correct handling
and use of the abrasive tool.
8
I
205
Diamond / CBN Grinding Tools, Electroplated Bond
205 I
9
Diamond / CBN Grinding Tools, Electroplated Bond
Special Tools Made to Customer Requirements
PFERD manufacturing strengths
The galvanically-produced nickel layer is ex-
PFERD manufacturing options
tremely hard and wear-resistant. The resulting
Manufacturing tools to customer specifications
Complete new tool
diamond and CBN grit bond is very hard and
is one of PFERD‘s particular strengths.
Coating of new blank (NB)
allows not only grinding tools but also files to
Electroplated abrasive tools are fast-cutting
Recoating (WB)
be produced according to this manufacturing
products. Tool bodies of almost any geometry
principle. Diamond files, for example, are used
can be coated with diamond or CBN abrasive.
Please include a technical drawing or fully di-
on hardened steels and on tungsten carbide.
As a result, this tool group is unsurpassed
mensioned manual sketch with your purchase
when it comes to manufacturing flexibility and
order and indicate the desired grit size and grit
No limitations on shapes
sheer diversity of realizable tool shapes.
type. If possible, determine the material to be
and batch sizes
Electroplated tools have high cutting action.
machined so that the abrasive coating can be
Due to their monolayer abrasive coating,
Electroplated bond tools can be manufac-
perfectly matched to the particular application.
electroplated bond tools are comparatively
Abrasive material can also be applied to
tured cost-efficiently in customised versions,
low-cost items. Their performance properties
customer-supplied blanks. For this service,
whether as a one-off tool or in small batches.
can be varied within a broad range through
please specify the surface area to be coated
This allows us to respond very flexibly to indi-
the appropriate choice of grit size.
as well as the desired grit size. Note that the
vidual customer needs.
While coarse-grit tools have been found par-
thickness of the abrasive layer must be taken
Tool bodies of any shape and substrate mate-
ticularly effective on soft materials such as, e.g.
into account to meet final specification dimen-
rial (e.g. steel, stainless steel, brass, etc.) can
glass-fibre reinforced plastics, much finer grit is
sions accurately.
be coated with diamond or CBN abrasive
needed to machine harder surfaces.
Tools made of steel or stainless steel can be
material.
easily recoated several times provided the tool
body contours are undamaged. The abrasive
material can be applied continuously or in seg-
ments, whether along the circumference and/
or on the face side(s) of the tool.
PFERD manufacturing options
Complete new tool
Coating of new blanks (NB)
Re coating (WB)
Tool body
Customer-supplied tool body
Re coating only makes sense for:
made by PFERD
Complex tool bodys
Complicated contours
Important:
Tool body must not be damaged.
Material that is to be coated
Material that is to be coated
Material that is to be coated
Steel
Steel
Steel
Stainless steel (INOX)
Stainless steel (INOX)
Stainless steel (INOX)
Brass
Brass
No brass
10
I
205
Diamond / CBN Grinding Tools, Electroplated Bond
Application Information and Recommended Applications
The advantages of electroplated
Recommended operating condi-
diamond and CBN tools
tions for electroplated diamond
and CBN tools
The abrasive grains project well out of the
bond, leaving large chips spaces which pre-
Generally, the following applies:
vent tool loading even at high removal rates.
High tool concentricity.
Low-vibration running.
Sharp, superhard abrasive particles ensure
Sturdy machine and tool mounting.
maximum cutting performance without
Workpieces are fixed securely.
undesirable heat build-up.
Sufficient drive power output is required
The tools are coated with a monolayer of
to ensure that the recommended RPM is
abrasive grit. They are therefore cheaper
maintained under load.
than other diamond and CBN tools, which
The use of coolant has a positive effect on
makes them suitable for processing smaller
the grinding result and the tool life.
batch sizes.
If the bond coating is completely blocked,
Virtually any tool shape (profile) can be
please clean it with the DSB 2005025
produced.
sharpening block. Please refer to cata-
logue 206 for detailed information and
ordering data.
Electroplated Diamond and CBN Tools
Further information
regarding electroplated
diamond and CBN
tools please refer to
the PRAXIS “Electro-
plated Diamond and CBN
Tools”.
Diamond Files
General guidelines
Grit size
FEPA
Recommendations for use
for diamond files
extremely fine
D 15
very fine prefinishing
Files for steel processing are almost always
coated with diamond grit. The file is moved
very fine
D 25 / D 46
fine prefinishing
at a low cutting speed over the material, thus
fine
D 91
prefinishing
generating only low temperatures which do
not cause chemical wear on the diamond
medium
D 126
general purpose
grit. This allows the higher hardness diamond
(in comparison to CBN) to be utilised for an
coarse
D 151 / D 181
coarse stock removal
optimum tool life.
very coarse
D 251
coarse stock removal
Apply only slight pressure to the file,
especially in workpiece edge areas!
Use a coarse grit for roughing, medium
Sectors of industry / target groups
grit for general purpose filing, and fine
Tool and mould construction
grit for finishing applications.
Foundries
Automotive
The information on grit sizes is compiled
Aerospace
according to ISO 6106.
Vehicle construction
Machine and system construction
Loaded diamond files can usually be
cleaned in kerosene or other cleaning
fluids (e.g., anti-static plastic cleaner)
using a file brush. Often it will suffice to
knock the file against a hard object. Avoid
contact with grease when using files!
205 I
11

Program

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